The reflection on the nature and the formalization of data and knowledge is crucial for the design and methodological developments.

Thus we have been working on:
* Drawing characters for the phylogeny as the identification
* The data representation "primary" through the computerization of data collection (collections of Paleobotany, Biology of animal models and exchange formats used by the international GBIF)
* Formalizing practices taxonomy (in terms of nomenclature, taxonomic descriptions, identification)